Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institut für Agrar- und Gartenbauwissenschaften


Peer-Review-Beiträge / Peer-reviewed articles



 2024 🖉

Knoll, M.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E. (2024). Sow serenity: automatic long-term measurement of lying behavior in crates and free-farrowing pens using 3D accelerometers, Journal of Animal Science, Volume 102, skae101,

 2023 🖉


Kahnau, P.; Jaap, A.; Diederich, K.; Gygax, L.; Rudeck, J.; Lewejohann, L. (2023). Determining the value of preferred goods based on consumer demand in a home-cage based test for mice. Behavior Research Methods 55, 751-766.

Meier, J.; Theby, V.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E.; Fischer-Tenhagen, C. (2023). Why workshops work: Examining the efficacy of training trainers to train goats. Animal Welfare 32, e76.

Pahl, A.; König von Borstel, U.; Brucks, D. (2023). Llamas use social information from conspecifics and humans to solve a spatial detour task. Animal Cognition.

Simon, G.; Hillmann, E.; Barth, K. (2023). Pasture-based fattening does not cause severe nonperforating lesions in veal calves of dairy breeds. JDS Communications.



Briefer, E. F.; Sypherd, C. C.-R.; Linhart, P.; Leliveld, L. M. C.; de la Torre, M. P.; Read, E. R.; Guérin, C.; Deiss, V.; Monestier, C.; Rasmussen, J. H.; Špinka, M.; Düpjan, S.; Boissy, A.; Janczak, A. M.; Hillmann, E.; Tallet, C.(2022). Classification of pig calls produced from birth to slaughter according to their emotional valence and context of production. Sci Rep 12, 3409.

Göttert, T.; Starik, N. (2022). Human-Wildlife Conflicts across Landscapes - General Applicability vs. Case Specifity. Diversity 2022, 14(5), 380.

Gómez, Y.; Cockburn, M.; Hankele, A.-K.; Gygax, L.; Zähner, M.; Hillmann, E.; Savary, P. (2022). Effects of small milking stalls on stress responses indairy cows during milking in group milking parlors. Journal of Dairy Science105, 609-622.

Gygax, L.; Rufener, C.; van Zeeland, Y. R. A. (2022). Fully flexible analysisof behavioural sequences based on parametric survival models with frailties- a tutorial. Ethology, Section “Ethological Methods” 128, 183-196.

Ivemeyer, S.; Preußer, J.; Haager, D.; Simantke, C.; Waldherr, P.; Kull, K.; Utz, G.; Knierim, U; Winckler, C. (2022). Impact of enhanced compared to restricted milk feeding on the behaviour and health of organic dairy calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 252, 105655.

Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Hillmann, Edna; Briefer, Elodie F. (2022): Cross-species discrimination of vocal expression of emotional valence by Equidae and Suidae. In: BMC Biology 20 (1), S. 106. DOI: 10.1186/s12915-022-01311-5.

Mandel, R.; Bracke, M. B. M; Nicol, C. J.; Webster, J. A.; Gygax, L. (2022). Dairy vs beef production - expert views on welfare of cattle in common food production systems. Animal Volume 16, Issue 9, Article 100647.

Roque, D. V.; Macandza, V. A.; Zeller, U.; Starik, N.; Göttert, T. (2022). Historical and current distribution and movement patterns of large herbivores in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique. Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:978397. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.978397

Starik, N.; Göttert, T. (2022.) Bats adjust echolocation and social call design as a response to urban environments. Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:939408. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2022.939408

Wimmler, C.; Leeb, C.; Winckler, C.; Knoll, M.; Holinger, M. (2022). The long and short of showers: Effects of shower duration on behaviour, thermal comfort and soiling of organic growing-finishing pigs with access to outdoor runs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 105826.


Kranepuhl, M.; May, D.; Hillmann, E.; Gygax, L. (2021). Association of body condition with lameness in dairy cattle, a single-farm longitudinal study. Journal of Dairy Research 88, 162-165.

Mandel, R.; Nicol, C.; Bracke, M.; Webster, J.; Gygax, L. (2021). Dairy vs. beef production - expert views on welfare. bioRxiv.

Nawroth, C.; Gygax, L. (2021). The legislative, ethical, and conceptual importance of replicability in farm animal welfare science. Animal Behavior and Cognition 8(2): 247–250. doi: 10.26451/abc.

Starik, N.; Göttert, T.; Zeller, U.(2021). Spatial Behavior and Habitat Use of Two Sympatric Bat Species. Animals 2021, 11, 3460:


de Oliveira, D.; Barth, K.; Haskell, M. J.; Hillmann, E.; Jensen, M. B.; Johnsen, J. F.; Mejdell, C.; Waiblinger, S.; Ferneborg, S. (2020). Methodology for experimental and observational animal studies in cow-calf contact systems. Journal of Dairy Research, 87(S1), 115-121. doi:10.1017/S0022029920000552

Dirksen, N.; Gygax, L.; Traulsen, I.; Wechsler, B.; Burla, J.-B.(2020). Body size in relation to cubicle dimensions affects lying behavior and joint lesions in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 103, 9407-9417.

Hindermann, P.; Nüesch, S.; Rüst, A.; Früh, D.; Gygax, L. (2020). High precision real-time location estimates in a real-life barn environment using a commercial ultra wideband chip. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 170, 105250. j.compag.2020.105250

Moser, L.; Becker, J.; Schüpbach-Regula, G.; Kiener, S.; Grieder, S.; Keil, N.; Hillmann, E.; Steiner, A.; Meylan, M. (2020). Welfare Assessment in Calves Fattened According to the "Outdoor Veal Calf" Concept and in Conventional Veal Fattening Operations in Switzerland. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI 10 (10).

Nawroth, Ch.; Gygax, L. (2020). The legislative, ethical, and conceptual importance of replicability in farm animal welfare science. AgriRxiv.

Patt, A.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E.; Keil, N.M. (2020). Signs of hunger in dairy calves indicate suboptimal periods in two weaning methods. AgriRxiv.

Prunier, A.; Averos, X.; Dimitrov, I.; Edwards, S. A.; Hillmann, E.; Holinger, M.; Ilieski, V.; Leming, R.; Tallet, C.; Turner, S. P.; Zupan, M.; Camerlink, I.(2020): Review: early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs. Animal 14 (3), S. 570–587.

Sirovnik, J.; Barth, K.; de Oliveira, D.; Ferneborg, S.; Haskell, M. J.; Hillmann, E.; Jensen, M. B.; Mejdell, C. M.; Napolitano, F.; Vaarst, M.; Verwer, C. M.; Waiblinger, S.; Zipp, K. A.; Johnsen, J. F. (2020): Methodological terminology and definitions for research and discussion of cow-calf contact systems. Journal of Dairy Research, 87(S1), 108-114.

Waiblinger, S.; Wagner, K.; Hillmann, E.; Barth, K.(2020): Play and social behaviour of calves with or without access to their dam and other cows. Journal of Dairy Research,87(S1),

Waiblinger, S.; Wagner, K.; Hillmann, E.; Barth, K. (2020). Short- and long-term effects of rearing dairy calves with contact to their mother on their reactions towards humans. Journal of Dairy Research, 87(S1), 148-153. doi:10.1017/S0022029920000576


Briefer, E. F.; Vizier, E.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E. (2019): Expression of emotional valence in pig closed-mouth grunts: Involvement of both source- and filter-related parameters. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 145, 2895-2908.

Gygax, L.; Nawroth, C. (2019) Farm animals are not humans in sheep clothing. Animal Sentience 25, 25. GN

Cockburn, M.; Gómez, Y.; Schick, M.;  Maffiuletti, N. A.; Gygax, L.; Savary, P.; Umstätter, C. (2019): Effect of milking stall dimensions on upper limb and shoulder muscle activity in milkers. Journal of Dairy Science 102, 4563-4576.

Kraatz, S.; Libra, J. A.; Drastig, K.; Hunstock, U.; Zare, M.; Jacobs, H. (2019): Water use indicators at farm scale – An agro-hydrological software solutio. Science of The Total Environment 678, 133-145.

Lutz, J.; Burla, J.- B.; Gygax, L.; Wechsler, B.; Würbel, H.; Friedli, K. (2019) Horned and de-horned dairy cows differ in the pattern of agonistic interactions investigated under different space allowances. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 218, 104819. GN

Moser, J.; Burla, J.-B.; Gygax, L. (2019): Executing specific foraging behaviours does not represent a general goal state of foraging in dry sows (Sus scrofa). Behavioural Processes 164, 115-122.

Prunier, A.; Averos, X.; Dimitrov, I.; Edwards, S. A.; Hillmann, E.; Holinger, M. et al. (2019): Review: Early life predisposing factors for biting in pigs. Animal, 1–18. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001940.

Raoult, C. M. C.; Gygax, L. (2019) Mood induction alters attention toward
negative-positive stimulus pairs in sheep. Scientific Reports 9, 7759. GN

Stachowicz, J.B.; Lanter, A.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E.; Wechsler, B.; Keil, N. M. (2019): Under temperate weather conditions, dairy goats use an outdoor run more with increasing warmth and avoid light wind or rain. Journal of Dairy Science 102, 1508-1521.

Wang, S.; Giller, K.; Hillmann, E.; Marquardt, S.; Schwarm, A. (2019): Effect of supplementation of pelleted hazel (Corylus avellana) leaves on blood antioxidant activity, cellular immune response and heart beat parameters in sheep. J Anim Sci. DOI: 10.1093/jas/skz288.


Brötje, A.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E.; Wechsler, B. (2018): Behaviour of gilts before and at parturition after intensified human-animal contact, training to be driven, or exposure to a farrowing pen.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 200, S. 56-66, DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2017.11.007.

Falke, A.; Friedli, K.; Gygax, L.; Wechsler, B.; Sidler, X.; Weber, R.(2018): Effect of rubber mats and perforation in the lying area on claw and limb lesions of fattening pigs. Animal 12, 2130-2137.

Frei, D.; Würbel, H.; Wechsler, B.; Gygax, L.; Burla, J.; Weber, R. (2018):Can body nosing in artificially reared piglets be reduced by sucking and massaging dummies? Applied Animal Be-haviour Science 202, 20-27.

Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E. (2018): "Naturalness” and its relation to animal welfare from an ethological perspective. Agriculture. 8, 136.

Gómez, Y.; Bieler, R.; Hankele, A. K.; Zähner, M.; Savary, P.; Hillmann, E. (2018): Evaluation of visible eye white and maximum eye temperature as non-invasive indicators of stress in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 198, Pages 1-8

Henzen, A.; Gygax, L. (2018): Weak general but no specific habituation in
anticipating stimuli of presumed negative and positive valence by weaned
piglets. Animals 8, 149.;

Holinger, M.; Früh, B.; Stoll, P.; Graage, R.; Wirth, S.; Bruckmaier, R.; Prunier, A.; Kreuzer, M.; Hillmann, E. (2018): Chronic intermittent stress exposure and access to grass silage interact differently in their effect on behaviour, gastric health and stress physiology of entire or castrated male growing-finishing pigs. Physiology & Behavior 195 (2018) 58-68,

Holinger, M.; Früh, B.; Stoll, P.; Kreuzer, M.; Hillmann, E. (2018): Grass silage for growing-finishing pigs in addition to straw bedding: Effects on behaviour and gastric health. Livestock Science 218, 50-70,

Holinger, M.; Früh, B.; Stoll, P.; Pedan, V.; Kreuzer, M.; Bérard, J.; Hillmann, E. (2018): Long-term effects of castration, chronic intermittent social stress, provision of grass silage and their interactions on performance and meat and adipose tissue properties in growing-finishing pigs. Meat Science 145, 40-50

Maigrot, A.-L.; Hillmann, E.; Briefer, E. F. (2018): Encoding of Emotional Valence in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Calls. Animals 2018, 8(6), 85; DOI:10.3390/ani8060085

Martens, S. D.; Majewska-Pinda, A.; Benkmann, A.; Zentek, J.; Spolders, M.; Simon, A.; Schafft H.; Steinhöfel, O. (2018): Influence of soil contamination before and after ensiling on mineral composition of grass silages, feed intake and carry-over to body tissue of goats. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 27, 307–316,

Keimer, B.; Kröger, S.; Röhe, I.; Pieper, R.; Simon, A.; Zentek J.(2018): Influence of differently processed yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) on feed intake and gut physiology in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 96:194–205,

Keimer, B.; Pieper R.; Simon, A.; Zentek, J. (2018) Effect of time and dietary supplementation with processed yeasts (Kluyveromyces fragilis) on immunological parameters in weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 245, 136-146

Mandel, R.; Harazy, H.; Gygax, L.; Nicol, C. J.; Ben-David, A.; Whay, H. R.; Klement, E. (2018): Short communication. Detection of lameness in dairy cows using a grooming device. J Dairy Sci. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-13207.

Raoult, C. M. C.; Gygax, L. (2018) Valence and intensity of video stimuli of dogs and conspecifics in sheep: approach-avoidance, operant response and attention. Animals 8, 121.

Stachowicz, J. B.; Gygax, L.; Hillmann, E.; Wechsler, B.; Keil, N. M. (2018): Dairy goats use outdoor runs of high quality more regardless of the quality of indoor housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 208, 22-30.

Weidt, A.; Gygax, L.; Palme, R.; Touma, C.; König, B. (2018) Impact of male presence on female sociality and stress endocrinology in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus). Physiology & Behavior 198, 1-9.

Weigele, H.; Gygax, L.; Steiner, A.; Wechsler, B.; Burla J.-B. (2018): Moderate lameness leads to marked behavioral changes in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 101, 2370-2382, DOI: org/10.3168 /jds.2017-13120


Briefer, E. F.; Mandel, R.; Maigrot, A.-L.; Briefer Freymond, S.; Bachmann, I.; Hillmann, E. (2017): Perception of emotional valence in horse whinnies. Front Zool 14. DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0193-1.

Buchli, C.; Raselli, A.; Bruckmaier, R.; Hillmann, E. (2017): Contact with cows during the young age increases social competence and lowers the cardiac stress reaction in dairy calves. Appl Anim Behav Sci 187, 1–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2016.12.002.

Burla, J.-B.; Rufener, C.; Bachmann, I.; Gygax, L.; Patt, A.; Hillmann, E. (2017): Space Allowance of the Littered Area Affects Lying Behavior in Group-Housed Horses. Frontiers in veterinary science 4, 23. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00023.

Cockburn, M.; Schick, M.; Maffiuletti, N. A.; Gygax, L.;Savary, P.l.; Umstätter, C. (2017): Lower working heights decrease contraction intensity of shoulder muscles in a herringbone 30° milking parlor. Journal of Dairy Science 100, 4914-4925. DOI: org/10.3168/jds.2016-11629 (“Editor’s Choice”)

Fuhrer, N.; Gygax, L. (2017): From minutes to days The ability of sows (Sus scrofa) to estimate time intervals. Behav Process 142, 146–155. DOI: 10.10164/j.beproc.2007.07.006.

Gomez, Y.; Terranova, M.; Zaehner, M.; Hillmann, E.; Savary, P. (2017): Effects of milking stall dimensions on behavior of dairy cows during milking in different milking parlor types. J Dairy Sci 100 (2), 1331–1339. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11589.

Gygax, L. (2017): Wanting, liking and welfare. The role of affective states in proximate control of behaviour in vertebrates. Ethology 123 (10), 689–704. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12655.

Haerdi-Landerer, M. Ch.; Grieder, S.; Mengelt, R.; Hillmann, E. (2017): Performance loss and changes in behaviour caused by footrot. Schweiz Arch Tierh 159 (5), 293–300. DOI: 10.17236/sat00116.

Johns, J.; Masneuf, S.; Patt, A.; Hillmann, E. (2017): Regular Exposure to Cowbells Affects the Behavioral Reactivity to a Noise Stimulus in Dairy Cows.  Frontiers in veterinary science 4, 153. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00153.

Keil, N. M.; Pommereau, M.; Patt, A.; Wechsler, B.; Gygax, L. (2017): Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach. J Dairy Sci 100 (2), 1353–1362. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-10980.

Maigrot, A.- L.; Hillmann, E.; Anne, C.; Briefer, E. F. (2017): Vocal expression of emotional valence in Przewalski's horses (Equus przewalskii). In: Sci Rep-Uk 7. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09437-1.

Raoult, C. M. C.; Moser, J.; Gygax, L. (2017): Mood as cumulative expectation mismatch: a test of theory based on data from nonverbal cognitive bias tests. Frontiers in Psychology, Section Comparative Psychology 8, 2197. DOI: org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02197