Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Ressourcenökonomie

Dissertation von Leander Raes

Analysis of incentive contracts to finance nature conservation and rural income generation in the buffer zone of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador

Beginn: Joint-PhD project.
            Started at Ghent University in October 2010 and at Humboldt University in November 2011

Ende: 2015


Different systems have been developed to address the problem of resource degradation due to land-use decisions. Among them are mechanisms such as funding through eco-tourism, payments schemes for environmental services (PES) and agro-forestry production systems. It is often not known what the effect is of these mechanisms is on both nature conservation and rural income generation.

The aim of this research is twofold, namely:

(1) to analyze the (potential) impacts and trade-offs of PES contracts for the conservation and improvement of ES and the provision of rural income in the buffer zone of Podocarpus National Park in Ecuador; and

(2) to compare the use of PES contracts with other mechanisms - such as organic coffee certification and the establishment of municipal protected areas - and land uses implemented in the research area to increase understanding of the impact of PES relative to other mechanisms.

Bearbeiter: Leander Raes

Kooperationspartner: Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University

Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Ir. Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Konrad Hagedorn, Prof. Dr. Ir. Patrick Van Damme, Prof. Dr. Ir. Marijke D’Haese
Finanzierung: VLIR-UOS Scholarship (15 October 2010 to 14 October 2014 VLIR-UOS Scholarship)

Veröffentlichungen und Vorträge:

Raes, L. and Mohebalian, P. (2014). The Socio Bosque Program for rainforest and páramo conservation, Ecuador. Available at:

Raes, L., Aguirre, N., D’Haese, M., Huylenbroeck, G. (2014). Analysis of the cost-effectiveness for ecosystem service provision and rural income generation: a comparison of three different programs in Southern Ecuador. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 16 (3), 471-498

Raes, L.; Rengel, E. and Romero, J. (2012) Inter-municipal cooperation in watershed Conservation through the establishment of a regional water fund – FORAGUA – in Southern Ecuador. Available at:

“PSA en América Latina, Análisis de diferentes sistemas (PES in Latin America, Analysis of different schemes)”. Presentation given at the International Seminar “Conservation of Watersheds”, 4-6 December 2013, Loja, Ecuador.

“The Nature of Financial Transfers for the Provision of Ecosystem Services – A Reality Check”. Presentation given at the conference “Societal dimensions of the conservation and utilization of biological diversity” 14-16 November 2012, Göttingen University, Germany.

“Environmental and socio-economic impacts of three mechanisms that finance nature conservation and rural development in the buffer zone of Podocarpus National Park in Ecuador”. Presentation given at 5th Annual International Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP) Conference, 30 July-3 August, 2012, Portland, Oregon, USA